Developments in PIL Journals Scholarship

Journal du droit international: Issue 2 of 2023

The second issue of the Journal du droit international for 2023 was released. It contains two articles and several case notes relating to private international law issues.

In the first article, Guillaume Payan (University of Toulon) analyses the recent recast of the EU regulation in matrimonial matters, the matters of parental responsibility and on international child abduction (“Brussels II ter”) in the broader context of EU judicial cooperation in civil matters.

The English abstract reads:

As its title indicates, Regulation (EU) 2019/1111 – known as “Brussels II ter” – of 25 June 2019 has three clearly identified sections: marital disunity, parental responsibility and wrongful removal or retention of a child. Within the limits of its scope thus circumscribed, it contains interesting provisions relating to the recognition and enforcement of court decisions and extrajudicial titles. Either classic or innovative, the solutions adopted converge towards the objective of a generalized abolition of the exequatur. While this development, characterized by an intensification of the principle of mutual recognition, is appropriate, it nevertheless appears insufficient with regard to the issues targeted in Regulation (EU) 2019/1111 and, by extension, the objective of creating a genuine European civil judicial area. Although it identifies the contributions of this new text in the light of Regulation (EC) n°2201/2003 – known as “Brussels II bis” – which preceded it, this study provides an opportunity to question the overall consistency of action of the European Union legislator in the field of civil judicial cooperation.

In a second article, Éric A. Caprioli (Avocat à la Cour and  Member of the French UN Delegation in the field of e-commerce) discusses the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Transferable Records (MLETR), since some countries such as France and Germany are currently working on its implementation into national law.

The English abstract reads:

The UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Transferable Records (MLETR) has been adopted on July 13, 2017, during the 50th session of the Commission. The purpose of this document is to develop provisions about electronic equivalents of transferable paper records or instruments. This mainly relates to bills of landing, bills of exchange and promissory notes, insurance policies, and warrants. These documents are essential in the financing of international trade. UNCITRAL has used the three general principles of electronic commerce in its instruments since the Model Law of 1996: non-discrimination against the use of electronic means, technological neutrality, and functional equivalence. Two Articles of the MLETR are fundamental. According to Article 10, Electronic Transferable Record (ETR) must meet two main requirements: the document must contain information required by instrumentum (written documents) and use a reliable method. The second one requirement imposes three other requirements: (i) identify the electronic record as the ETR, (ii) render the ETR capable of being subject to control from its creation until it ceases to have any effect or validity; and (iii) retain the integrity of the electronic record. Another key concept, the Article 11 discusses the control of the electronic record, which constitutes the functional equivalent of possession in the paper environment. Indeed, the individual who has the exclusive control over the document will be allowed to request the performance of the obligation or to transfer the document. Therefore, a reliable method must be used to establish the exclusive control over this ETR and identify this person as an individual who has the control. France has launched a transposition process of the MLETR into its national legislation like other countries of G7 (UK, Germany,…).”

The table of contents of the issue can be accessed here.

Marion is law professor at Artois University (France)